The purpose of assessment is to gather valid, reliable and useful information about student learning. This argument was supported by Boon’s (2016b) study of effective peer assessment processes in primary schools. ASSESSMENT AS LEARNING Assessment as learning occurs when students are their own assessors. Interim Issue: Evidence-informed Practice, Issue 7: Arts, creativity and cultural education, Issue 9: Learning, leadership and teacher expertise, Issue 10: Developing evidence-informed teaching techniques to support effective learning, Special issue: Youth social action and character education, Special Issue January 2019: Education Technology, training to peer assess effectively, which includes using prompts, checklists of criteria, teacher modelling of how to assess work and regular practice, to be given time to discuss and reflect on feedback given to improve work. It may provide the basis for assessment upon completion of a student’s project or essay. One method of ensuring that exploratory talk takes place is through thinking together, where students are guided to use a set of ground rules for effective communication (Mercer et al., 2004). Students learn more effectively when they can: When you design assessment appropriately, you can facilitate deeper learning experiences for your students so they learn more effectively. If our choices of assessment strategies provide systems under which students are goaded into activities that privilege short-term memory, information recall and surface learning, we should not be surprised if the outcomes are exceedingly poor in terms of learning gain. Brown, Race and Smith suggest:How we assess our students has a profound effect on what they learn, and on the ways in which they learn. Education 3–13: International Journal of Primary, Elementary and Early Years Education 43(6): 664–680. Information in this handout is based on the text, Seven Strategies of Assessment for Learning, 2e (2015). Therefore, try to ensure that each assessment is an opportunity for students to deepen their learning. Using peer assessment as an effective learning strategy in the classroom, Listen and Respond: evaluating the use of audio feedback. Language and Education 20(6): 507–528. Articulating your aims for teaching the course can clarify these matters in your own mind. Carefully planned assessment can also benefit you as a teacher by reducing plagiarism and your marking and feedback load. It is designed to provide evidence of achievement to parents, London: Routledge. Schools and the wider community: Approaches and outcomes, Knowledge, skills, character and values within the curriculum, Emotions matter: Adapting RULER for UK schools to build emotional intelligence in children. Apply their knowledge to real-world contexts. in order to determine concept and … However, Kollar and Fischer’s argument (2010) assumes that students already have the necessary interpersonal skills to interact effectively during peer assessment. Journal of Educational Research 84(1): 22–29. Part 1 focuses on characteristics of high-quality and evidence-based professional learning strategies: face-to-face, blended, online, and connected. Alternatively, teachers could devote some time to questioning students about what they have recorded on their proformae and asking them for explanations. Students will need guidance in order to use this kind of dialogue rather than disputational or cumulative talk (Mercer et al., 2004). A synoptic assessment is a specific type of summative assessment strategy that tests the student’s understanding of connections between different elements of a subject or different subjects. Boon’s action research primary school study (2016a) explored this in more depth and found that students made better use of feedback if it was relevant, if time was given for discussion between peers to clarify misunderstandings, and if students were encouraged to reflect on how the feedback had been used. While much research has concentrated on developing written peer feedback (Topping, 2018), students’ use of verbal feedback is also important, particularly in areas such as mathematics, where peer assessment might take place through dialogue rather than a written outcome. A study focusing on Year 6 children in a primary school also found that training in peer assessment skills helped students to provide focused task-involving feedback (Boon, 2015). Specifically, I want to focus on the idea of “Assessment as learning”. (2004) Reasoning as a scientist: Ways of helping children to use language to learn science. Making assessment an integral part of daily mathematics instruction is a challenge. Assessment and Learning  Assessment of learning (Summative assessment, no feedback)  Assessment for learning (Formative assessment, feedback)  Assessment as learning (Assessment as part and parcel of learning, the primary purpose of assessment becomes learning, while the secondary purpose remains grading) 4. (2003) Assessment for Learning: Putting it into Practice. Strategy 2: Engineering effective classroom discussions, questions, and learning tasks that elicit … Assessment is always a learning opportunity for students. The central assessment benefit to conferences in hybrid and distance learning is finding out exactly what students know and what they can do—there’s no internet or parent to give them hints, so you can get a clear snapshot of students’ knowledge and skills. By utilizing different assessment strategies, teachers can help students experience more success by tapping into their various learning preferences. UNSW CRICOS Provider Code: 00098G, TEQSA Provider ID: PRV12055, ABN: 57 195 873 179 As a teacher, you are responsible for ensuring students can use this opportunity effectively. Conversely, however, peer assessment can hinder students’ learning if poor-quality, insensitive or unhelpful peer feedback is exchanged, and may strain relationships between learners (Topping, 2017, 2018). Can we help improve wider school outcomes through youth social action? Youth social action: What are the benefits for careers education? Mercer N and Sams C (2006) Teaching children how to use language to solve maths problems. When you design assessment for a course of study, you're essentially designing what and how students will learn. Kollar I and Fischer F (2010) Peer assessment as collaborative learning: A cognitive perspective. British Educational Research Journal 30 (3): 367–385. These ground rules encourage exploratory talk, which shares some features of effective peer assessment. session, we will explore the Seven Strategies of Assessment for Learning, which organize research-based recommendations about formative assessment practices into an instructional framework that has consistently improved motivation and achievement through deep student involvement. guidance on working collaboratively so that they are able to use talk in ways that enable them to hypothesise, reason and critique. Recent research has found that some of the basic retrieval strategies that are particularly good at producing learning in older students (e.g. Dr Adele Flood from the Learning and Teaching Unit discusses assessment as learning. For example, children who had previously engaged in arguments and disputes were able to use talk during a maths activity to assess the ongoing ideas of their partner and drive learning forwards. ... A range of strategies and tools are available to engage students in self-assessment. In The Difference Between Assessment Of Learning And Assessment For Learning, we explained that “assessment for learning is commonly referred to as formative assessment–that is, assessment designed to inform instruction.” Below, we offer 6 types of assessment of learning–very briefly, with simple ways to ‘think about’ each so that you hopefully wake up with a better grasp of … effective teacher feedback Effective teacher feedback focuses on established success criteria and tells the students what they have achieved and where they need to … While these are convenient and provide a record of student thinking, they can become an activity devoid of any real thinking. It is good educational practice to communicate to students what you are trying to achieve and what they should expect to gain from your topics. During peer assessment, learning objectives need to be explicit, and there needs to be clarity around how these can be successfully met (Boon, 2015; Topping, 2018). These studies were related to higher education but may still apply to students in primary and secondary schools. Boon (2016b) also found that following thinking together, children were able to communicate in ways that supported effective peer assessment. If used effectively, peer assessment – a formative assessment strategy that encourages students to comment on the work of their peers – can improve students’ understanding of success criteria, help them to become more engaged in learning and develop their interpersonal skills (Black et al., 2003; Topping, 2017), as well as potentially even reducing teacher workload. Assessment is the process of observing and measuring learning. Assessment for Learning: “Assessment for learning occurs throughout the learning process. This assumption does not sit comfortably with research suggesting that younger students often struggle to work collaboratively (Mercer et al., 2004; Mercer and Sams, 2006). For peer assessment to have an impact on learning, students need: Berg EC (1999) The effects of trained peer response on ESL students’ revision types and writing quality. Within a remote learning environment, educators should adhere to the traditional pattern which includes pre-testing students’ knowledge of new concepts in order to identify their levels of prior knowledge to subsequently drive the instructional process; incorporating formative assessments in the form of mini-quizzes, classroom exit tickets, homework, etc. The term assessment for learning has been used for formative assessment which focuses on students’ ongoing development or learning process to indicate the gap between the assessed work level and the required standard and how students need to improve. When using assessment as learning in the classroom, peer and self-assessment is an effective approach to enhance the learning of students. Improving metacognition through explicit instruction of learning strategies, Metacognition: Replicating Lewis’ study at a diverse Nursery School in East London, A metacognitive approach to improving academic performance and study skills in sixth form students, Teacher classroom reflections: tackling flawed metacognition and memory, Getting the right task to develop metacognition and self-regulated learning in early primary school, Gender stereotypes and their impact on children’s metacognition, Copyright © Chartered College of Teaching 2018, Celebrating and supporting the voices and actions of children and young people. in a particular area of the syllabus) and subsequently targets are set to rectify this. Black P, Harrison C, Lee C et al. Assessment for Learning strategies are: the strategic use of questioning Questioning is used not only as a pedagogical tool but also as a deliberate way for the teacher to find out what students know, understand and are able to do. 3. A second kind of dialogue that might emerge is cumulative talk, where peers agree with one another’s assertions in an uncritical manner, which again may not be helpful, as students need to be able to constructively examine each other’s work. Journal of Second Language Writing 15(2): 118–141. ADAPTING YOUR ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES FOR REMOTE TEACHING June 2020 2 LINK ASSESSMENTS TO LEARNING Students will naturally focus their attention on learning content that will be assessed. Students monitor their own learning, ask questions and use a range of strategies to decide what they know and can do, and how to use assessment for new learning. Authorised by Pro Vice-Chancellor Education Learning and Instruction 20(4): 304–315. Guiding students to provide task-involving feedback is more likely to motivate them to learn and make subsequent improvements in their work (Kamins and Dweck, 1999), so research has therefore concentrated on the importance of training learners to provide effective task-involving feedback (e.g. Oral reflection, whether as a whole class or group within the class, might sometimes be more useful. Assessment should be embedded in all aspects of a course rather than being something that just happens at the end. Cognitive load theory and teacher expertise: specific challenges for primary teachers, Expertise Reversal Effect and its Instructional Implications. Olson VLB (1990) The revising processes of sixth-grade writers with and without peer feedback. A typical learning journey includes: Whilst interesting, these findings have to be viewed cautiously due to a small sample size and an absence of controls. Each strategy concludes with a description of McGill-supported tools for implementing the assessment. A learning and performance ecosystem based approach is designed to support a continuous learning journey and is particularly useful for remote learners. Topping KJ (2018) Learning by Peer Assessment: Appraising, Reflecting, Discussing. It requires planning specific ways to use assignments and discussions to discover what students do and do not understand. But they should recognize that different students succeed in different assessment venues, and, thereby, to try to incorporate a few different types of assessments over the course of a unit. Assessment as learning develops and supports … Fostering maths fluency with the use of EdTech, More effective teaching through modelling, Placing Retrieval at the Heart of our Pedagogy and Curriculum, Zipping towards success: workload-neutral strategies to establish a powerful knowledge base for all students, Targeting the language gap in EYFS children, Utilising cognitive research as an early-career teacher, Researching cognitive development in primary schools: methods and practical considerations, Teaching For Neurodiversity: Training Teachers To See Beyond Labels, How to assess claims about cognition and learning: The ACE Concepts, The explicit use and modelling of cognitive science in staff development, Moving from what we know, to what we know works: How one primary school uses cognitive science in teaching and learning, How we used research to drive school improvement. If you have a well-designed set of course learning outcomes, assessment task design will be a great deal easier. Journal of Second Language Writing 8(3): 215–241. These checklists enabled learners to move beyond comments such as ‘You’re really good at this – keep it up!’ to those that referred to success criteria. Can teaching upper primary about the ‘testing effect’ increase feelings of confidence about test-taking? New York and London: Routledge. See Designing Assessment As Learning for help when considering and designing assessment. Develop their own understanding of a subject. formative assessmentpeer assessmentpeer feedbackPerspectivesverbal feedback, Cognition, learning and educational research, Context, mechanism, outcome: How one primary school evaluated the efficacy of teaching strategies in a knowledge-rich curriculum, A reflection on how retrieval practice has been used as a tool to improve recall and synoptic thinking in music A-level. It is interactive, with teachers: • aligning instruction • identifying particular learning needs of students or groups • selecting and adapting materials and resources • creating differentiated teaching strategies and learning opportunities for helping individual It’s not all about the retrieval practice! 2020: A new perspective for school leadership? The purpose of this article is to examine how these potential issues can be avoided and how peer assessment can be used as an effective learning strategy. The instructor asks a question, and students write down their answers. Students monitor their own learning, ask questions and use a range of strategies to decide what they know and can do, and how to use assessment for new learning. Whilst ensuring that relevant and useful feedback is given, it is vital that students make good use of this too (Gielen et al., 2010). What you decide to assess should be closely aligned with the stated learning outcomes for the course. System 33(2): 293–308. It can be argued that all of the assessment strategies in this table support AFL if their ultimate use is to help the student progress in terms of their learning. One such type of dialogue identified by Mercer (2000) has been characterised as disputational talk, where students rigidly adhere to their point of view in discussion and are unwilling to accept alternative viewpoints. Maidenhead: Open University Press. This involves hypothesising and reasoning; supporting assertions with good examples; questioning one another; and reaching an agreement based on fruitful discussion (Mercer and Sams, 2006). This is one of the many formative assessment strategies that is simple for teachers to use. Does research on retrieval practice translate into classroom practice? When implementing student self-assessment, use strategies to support students to monitor, reflect and take responsibility for their learning. Assessment for learning is best described as a process by which assessment information is used by teachers to adjust their teaching strategies, and by students to adjust their learning strategies. Research has indicated that when students are responsible for their own learning, their performance is enhanced. Each strategy begins with learning outcomes, is followed by an example assessment type, and an explanation of how this assessment allows students to demonstrate their achievement of the learning outcomes. Developing students’ verbal peer feedback. Learning Assessment Strategies Assessments evaluate students using multiple instruments across multiple domains of knowledge, dispositions, and performances. Teachers often use proformae to encourage students to reflect on their learning experience. Such interaction during peer assessment might involve using dialogue to explore written and verbal comments, and working collaboratively to enhance the products of peer assessment (Kollar and Fischer, 2010). Here’s information about assessment strategies for Kindergarten to Year 6. ... Assessment as Learning . Conferences A conference is a formal or informal meeting … Boon SI (2016a) Increasing the uptake of peer feedback in primary school writing: Findings from an action research enquiry. If students are familiar with success criteria, they can use these to evaluate how far their partner has moved towards accomplishing a learning goal (Min, 2005, 2006). Kamins ML and Dweck CS (1999) Person versus process praise and criticism: Implications for contingent self-worth and coping. Gielen S, Peeters E, Dochy F et al. For example, students were encouraged to say and give examples of how they had used elements of feedback to improve the quality of an information text. Several research studies have highlighted the important role teachers play in modelling how to identify strengths and weaknesses in a peer’s work (e.g. Classroom presentations A classroom presentation is an assessment strategy that requires students to verbalize their knowledge, select and present samples of finished work, and organize their thoughts about a topic in order to present a summary of their learning. 22 Simple Assessment Strategies & Tips You Can Use Every Day. Guiding students to give effective feedback is important, since they often find it challenging ‘to think of their work in terms of a set of goals’ (Black et al., 2003, p. 49). Mercer N (2000) Words and Minds: How We Use Language to Think Together. Students are then placed in pairs to discuss their responses. Tools, such as learning journals, portfolios and conferences, involve a student reflecting on their performance and presenting evidence of their progress and achievement against … Black (2007) argues that developing exploratory talk through thinking together is likely to be useful for formative peer assessment because it involves pupils who can reason effectively through discussion (Black, 2007). Assessment as learning Assessment as learning occurs when students are their own assessors. Interdisciplinary Education and Psychology 1(7): 1–17. (2010) Improving the effectiveness of peer feedback for learning. Assessments provide faculty with a better understanding of what your students are learning and engage students more deeply in the process of learning geoscience content. The primary purpose of the Professional Learning Strategies Self-Assessment Tool is to support districts in the planning, integration, and implementation of professional learning for continuous improvement. 1. Strategic Questioning. Learning and Instruction 20(4): 344–348. Feedback should be task-involving, focusing on key elements of the success criteria that have been met and giving details about how the work might be enhanced (Kamins and Dweck, 1999). This helps students, but it also helps you. Assessment, teaching, and learning are inextricably linked as each informs the others. Digital Quizzes I use Google Forms … For instance, both exploratory talk and peer assessment involve hypothesising and reasoning (Topping, 2017, 2018). The value of a cognitive approach towards values education, Using multimodality to support cognitive loading in Maths: A Case Study, Cognitive Load Theory: A School-Wide approach, The Bad News and the Good News: Why and How to Teach about Memory, Misconceptions, p-prims and bridging analogies in Physics teaching. Developmental Psychology 35(3): 835–847. Berg, 1999; Min, 2005, 2006). This involves students asking one another effective questions; reasoning effectively; reaching agreements based on critical discussion and support; and encouraging one another throughout different activities (Mercer et al., 2004; Mercer and Sams, 2006). Education 3–13: International Journal of Primary, Elementary and Early Years Education 44(2): 212–225. In a study focusing on elementary school peer assessment, children who used peer feedback made more progress in writing than those who had not used it (Olson, 1990). Kollar and Fischer (2010, p. 345) suggest that during peer assessment, ‘interactive exchange may be beneficial’ for learning. This assessment approach occurs at all stages of the learning process. Assessment of learning refers to strategies designed to confirm what students know, demonstrate whether or not they have met curriculum outcomes or the goals of their individualized programs, or to certify proficiency and make decisions about students’ future programs or placements. Questioning strategies may be used with individuals, small groups, or the … Having considered how teachers might use peer assessment as a learning strategy to improve the quality of written and verbal feedback, it is now time to offer some recommendations for professional practice. Assessment is a powerful process that can either optimise or inhibit learning, depending on how it is applied. NESA is regularly updating its advice as the coronavirus outbreak unfolds. Here are some guidelines: The teacher in the study modelled the peer assessment process and gave children time to practise peer assessment on a fictional student, using checklists to scaffold written comments (Min, 2005, 2006; Gielen et al., 2010). In the enhanced approach, the assessment strategy is applied through the learning and performance ecosystem. Mercer N, Dawes R, Wegerif R et al. Black P (2007) Full marks for feedback. What can cognitive psychology tell us about the challenges of learning mathematics (and what do we still not know)? Explicitly teaching students how to assess their own work, and the work of their peers, has many benefits. An open-ended question that gets them writing/talking. Topping KJ (2017) Peer assessment: Learning by judging and discussing the work of other learners. at university) don’t work well with younger students For example, Karpicke, Blunt, Smith and Karpicke (2014) conducted an experiment with fourth-grade students (aged 9-11) in their classrooms. Boon SI (2016b) How can peer assessment be used in ways which enhance the quality of younger children’s learning in primary schools? In these cases, peer assessment may become an unmanageable task for students, leading them to use talk in ways that do not support their learning (Mercer et al., 2004; Mercer and Sams, 2006). This study found that exploratory talk was useful for peer assessment, given that it involves students critiquing ideas effectively, a necessary dimension of effective peer feedback. Berg, 1999; Min, 2005, 2006). The Assessment Process; Assessment Strategies and Tools; Bibliography; Types of Classroom Assessment. Assessment as Learning is the use of ongoing self-assessment by students in order to monitor their own learning, which is “characterized by students reflecting on their own learning and making adjustments so that they achieve deeper understanding.” (Western and Northern Canadian Protocol for Collaboration in Education [WNCP], 2006, p.41) The table above provides a summary of Assessment asLearning as a part of a three-part as… ... typically, university students are able to write down at … However, a third type of dialogue that might be more useful is exploratory talk. ... and allowed for a variety of assessment strategies (conversation, observation, product). Oral and written testing in a classroom is a type of assessment strategy. The purpose of this type of assessment is to teach students how to make connections between topics and to increase student engagement while using a holistic assessment approach. Boon SI (2015) The role of training in improving peer assessment skills amongst year six pupils in primary school writing: An action research enquiry. Min HT (2006) The effects of trained peer review on EFL students’ revision types and writing quality. Make the Grade (Journal of the Institute of Educational Assessors) 2: 18–21. Assessment as Learning Assessment should be embedded in all aspects of a course rather than being something that just happens at the end. Ed D thesis, University of Leicester, UK. View Sample reflective questions and pr… Recommendations. Assessments include paper and pencil tests, performance measures, evidence of positive effects on student learning, external reviews, and self-reports, some embedded in instruction and some summative in nature. Metacognition, self-regulation and self-regulated learning: what’s the difference? After a time, the students discuss their responses with the entire class. Avoid yes/no questions and phrases like “Does this make sense?” In response to these questions, students usually answer ‘yes.’ So, of course, it’s surprising when several students later admit that they’re lost. Min HT (2005) Training students to become successful peer reviewers. Assessment strategies refer to ways in which an instructor, such as a classroom teacher or trainer at a business, can evaluate how well students are learning materials presented to them. Mathematics in the Early Years: What matters? A good example of using a summative assessment strategy in an AFL context is where a test or exam is used to identify a lack of understanding (e.g. Peer assessment can be a powerful learning strategy if students are adequately prepared for it and have been guided to develop key interpersonal skills (Black et al., 2003; Boon 2016a, 2016b; Topping, 2017, 2018). More than any other aspect of the curriculum, well-designed assessment is the key to engaging students in active and productive learning. More than any other aspect of the curriculum, well-designed assessment is the key to engaging students in active and productive learning. This is another benefit of formative assessment strategies, especially this one. Peer assessment can be a powerful learning strategy if students are adequately prepared for it and have... References. (500 Tips on Assessment, Kogan Page, London, 1996, p7). Teaching at UNSW, Sydney NSW 2052, Australia Telephone 9385 5989, Towards 2025: Strategic goals and priorities, Gathering evidence of your teaching practice. Writing: findings from an action research enquiry process ; assessment strategies, teachers help! Elementary and Early Years education 44 ( 2 ): 118–141 recent research has found following. In pairs to discuss their responses International Journal of primary, Elementary and Early Years education (... 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2020 assessment as learning strategies