We showed that the comparative transcriptomics approach was effective in identifying genes for reproductive development and found that lipid metabolism was particularly active in wheat anthers. a) catkin. Relative expression abundance of the identified genes in different tissues based on RNA-seq data. Chromosome-specific genomic DNA sequences corresponding to the retained contigs were obtained by retrieving the chromosome-assigned homologous scaffolds in the TGAC database [28] (http://www.tgac.ac.uk/grassroots-genomics) that showed 95% homology to the contig sequences. 400+ VIEWS. Inflorescence is a particular arrangement of flowers on branch. Table S2: primers used in RT-PCR. a) wheat. ... Morphology of Flowering Plants - Poaceae or Gramineae Family Inflorescence - Duration: 11:01. CFAES provides research and related educational programs to clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis. Accessibility Accommodation. This has led to the discovery of a number of genes involved in flower development. A. Schrauwen, P. F. de Groot, M. M. van Herpen et al., “Stage-related expression of mRNAs during pollen development in lily and tobacco,”, J. Ma, D. S. Skibbe, J. Fernandes, and V. Walbot, “Male reproductive development: gene expression profiling of maize anther and pollen ontogeny,”, P. Deveshwar, W. D. Bovill, R. Sharma, J. Wheat plants were further adapted for cultivation in different environments via flowering behaviour. IDG011-1A was the only exception, which was predominantly expressed in the inflorescence as a whole in spite of a significantly higher expression in the stamen and pistil relative to the vegetative tissues. The ESTs used in this study were produced with 67 cDNA libraries prepared using inflorescences (spike at flowering or before flowering, anther, pistil, ovary, palea, and lemma), roots, stems, leaves (including seedlings and crown tissues), and seeds (matured or immature embryos) from normally grown seedlings or plants and represented 434,658 cloning events (Table S1). Scaffolds that did not contain the full-length target CDS were extended via in silico walking, using a parameter of 100% match, with the Roche 454 sequence reads of Chinese Spring [30] (http://www.cerealsdb.uk.net). This could be much less than the actual number of genes differentially expressed in inflorescence tissues. The products encoded by IDG007, IDG018, IDG050, IDG055, and IDG056 were related to pollen wall formation [53–55]. Similar to FT1, the loss-of-function mutant of FT-A2 in the tetra- Table S3: sequence, annotation, and expression specificity of 170 identified genes. To verify the expression specificity experimentally, sqRT-PCR was performed with tissues of root, node, internode, flag leaf, glume, lemma, palea, lodicule, stamen, pistil, rachis, and kernel 9th day postanthesis, using 27 pairs of primers that corresponds to 64 members of the identified genes (Table S2). Although key genes regulating flower initiation and development are conserved, the mechanism regulating fertility is still not well explained. d) fig. The subtilase-encoding genes related to anther dehiscence (IDG002) were overwhelmingly expressed in anthers, especially at the tetrad stage [60]. A. Taylor, A. Horsch, A. Rzepczyk, C. A. Hasenkampf, and C. D. Riggs, “Maturation and secretion of a serine proteinase is associated with events of late microsporogenesis,”, G. J. vanEldik, W. H. Reijnen, R. K. Ruiter, M. M. A. vanHerpen, J. In this study, we identified 170 wheat genes for floral identity determination, anther and pollen development, pollen-pistil interaction, and others using the comparative transcriptomics approach. Moreover, IDG051 encode proteins predicted with lysophosphatidylethanolamine acyltransferase activities, which probably participates in the phospholipid metabolism in mitochondria. Flowering in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is highly sensitive to heat stress.Eleven spring wheat genotypes were exposed to heat stress (34/16°C, day/night temperature) during flowering to investigate the impact on time of day of flowering, seed set, grain yield, and … Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. The whole process of inflorescence development is under regulatory control. CFAES Diversity  |  Nondiscrimination notice  |  Site Map, ©  2020 The Ohio State University, College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences, Fertility Factsheets, Bulletins, and Tools, Tri-State Fertilizer Recommendations (2020), http://ohioline.osu.edu/agf-fact/pdf/0126.pdf, College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 2120 Fyffe Road | Room 3 Ag Admin Bldg. NCERT P Bahadur IIT-JEE Previous Year Narendra Awasthi MS Chauhan. We connect with people in all stages of life, from young children to older adults. Fatty acyl-CoA reductase, encoded by IDG033 in wheat and Ms2 in Arabidopsis, is the key enzyme for the production of fatty alcohols in plastids [48]. 1.An inflorescence in which flowers arise from different point but reach at same point is known as. In this paper, we reported mining of 170 genes predominantly expressed in floral organs through comparative transcriptomic profiling using ESTs of 67 wheat cDNA libraries deposited in GenBank genes and the identification of a few metabolic pathways involved in anther development. Interestingly, most ESTs matching to 14 of the 17 genes came from Ogihara’s unpublished cDNA libraries Wh_FL or Wh_f, which were constructed with spikelets or spikes at flowering stage. Biology. The microarray-based transcriptomic analysis of anthers by Crismani et al. NCERT RD Sharma Cengage KC Sinha. IDG038 encodes an acidic peroxidase that might participate in the synthesis of phenylpropanoids present in sporopollenin [52]. Apart from seven genes with a negligible number of reads, the remaining 163 genes were divided according to their expression profiles into three groups, each of which had two subgroups. was mainly focused on identification of early meiotic genes [15]. c) mulberry. CFAES COVID-19 Resources:   Safe and Healthy Buckeyes   |   COVID-19 Hub   |   CFAES Calendar. Mutation of CER1 in both Arabidopsis and rice caused defective pollens [50, 51]. NCERT NCERT Exemplar NCERT Fingertips Errorless Vol-1 Errorless Vol-2. In this category, five gene sets code for proteins related to JA, ET, and GA signaling, three for MADS-box transcription factors and three for H2A and H2B proteins. Phylogenic analysis of grasses revealed that rice is the close relative to wheat [3]. Flowering will continue over the next 7-10 days. The tissues used included kernel 9th day postanthesis, root, node, internode, flag leaf, glume, lemma, palea, lodicule, stamen, pistil, and rachis at the heading stage of common wheat landrace “Wangshuibai.”. Multiple copies derived from duplication of an ancestral gene at the same chromosome were differentiated by a numerical suffix. Orthologous genes were given a common name but marked with a chromosome assignment suffix. 3. Inflorescences are the reproductive architectures of plants, composed of stems, stalks, bracts, and flowers. Newsletter questions are directed to Extension and OARDC state specialists and associates at Ohio State. Deciphering genes involved in its development is the first step to understand the essence of reproduction and of great importance for seed production manipulation. For identification of the inflorescence development-related genes, these libraries were classified into five types according to the tissues used in library preparation, including seedling-stage leaf and stem, seedling to tillering-stage root, seed (from DPA3 to mature), and inflorescence (including premeiotic anthers, anthers at meiosis, pistil and ovary, immature inflorescence, lemma and palea, spike before flowering, and spike at flowering). Particularly worth mentioning are the gene set-encoding enzymes or proteins participating in lipid metabolism. Wheat is the most widely grown cereal grain, with the total wheat output in 2016 at 724 million tonnes. Species in the genus Triticum takes the shape of the spike with the spikelets, each containing one or more florets, attached to rachis nodes. [27], where f is the EST frequency of a contig in the inflorescence libraries estimated by dividing the number of matched ESTs by the total number of ESTs in the libraries and n and N are the number of matched ESTs and the total number of ESTs in libraries of other tissues types, respectively. It is denser and has a higher photosynthetic rate than other leaves, to supply carbohydrateto the developing ear. After trimmed adapters and removing vectors and low quality reads with AdapterRemoval in a setting of quality base = 33 [32], the RNA-seq reads were mapped to the sequence database consisting of genomic DNA sequences of each identified candidate gene using HISAT2 [33]. Anther tissues were used in most of these studies because they are easy to isolate and specific in biological roles. | Columbus, Ohio 43210. The reactions were conducted in triplicate. Particularly, 25 annotated gene sets are associated with pollen wall formation, of which 18 encode enzymes or proteins participating in lipid metabolic pathway, including fatty acid ω-hydroxylation, alkane and fatty alcohol biosynthesis, and glycerophospholipid metabolism. Our results complemented well with previous studies involved in wheat floral development. Copyright © 2018 Lingjie Ma et al. In Arabidopsis, a type II β-(1,3)-galactosyltransferase is required for pollen exine development [58]. In Arabidopsis, the acyl-CoA synthetase gene ACOS5 was upregulated in the tapetal cells. The fourth category only has four gene sets and is associated with pollination and pollen-stigma interactions. [31] (http://wheat.pw.usda.gov/WheatExp), those for C.S. C.O.R.N. In addition, the galactosyltransferase-encoding IDG006, predominantly expressed in stamen, was related to pollen tube elongation [81]. The MADS-box transcription factor proteins encoded by IDG001 and IDG021 have 87% similarity. IDG028 codes for a protodermal factor 1-like protein mainly in the pistil. This site designed and maintained by CFAES Marketing and Communications. A sampling probability ≤ 0.0001 has very likely increase type II error; however, it could minimize false positives, as shown in RNA-seq data analysis and RT-PCR validation, which is beneficial for correct data interpretation. Spike of spikelets Panicle of spikelets Spike Receme of spikes Answer : A Related Video. Most of them were associated with substance production, transportation, and assembly for anther and pollen development. The qRT-PCR of a selected set of genes, including those with a relatively lower expression level and those expressed in multiple tissues, further confirmed these results (Figure S1). A few identified genes were associated with pollen-stigma interactions. Wheat is the staple food for 35 percent of the world's population and provides more calories and protein in the diet than any other crop [3] . Probably, these genes are expressed at a developmental inflorescence stage not included in the tissues for the RNA sequencing. Supplementary 1. Modifying morphometric inflorescence traits is important for increasing grain yield in wheat. Using these contig sequences as queries in search of the TGAC database [28] with 90% as the homology threshold, 318 nonabundant genomic DNA sequences were obtained, 294 of which yield the expected open reading frames (ORF) with EST support in gene prediction with the gene-finding program FGENESH [29]. This CER1 gene was downregulated in pistil or pistillody stamen [17], suggesting its specificity to stamen development. A notable example was IDG042 that had duplications in all three group 6 chromosomes, with a total of 14 copies showing inflorescence development-related preferential expression. Able, and S. Kapoor, “Analysis of anther transcriptomes to identify genes contributing to meiosis and male gametophyte development in rice,”, N. Rutley and D. Twell, “A decade of pollen transcriptomics,”, P. Chaturvedi, T. Ischebeck, V. Egelhofer, I. Lichtscheidl, and W. Weckwerth, “Cell-specific analysis of the tomato pollen proteome from pollen mother cell to mature pollen provides evidence for developmental priming,”, T. Marcussen, S. R. Sandve, L. Heier et al., “Ancient hybridizations among the ancestral genomes of bread wheat,”, W. Crismani, U. Baumann, T. Sutton et al., “Microarray expression analysis of meiosis and microsporogenesis in hexaploid bread wheat,”, S. McIntosh, L. Watson, P. Bundock et al., “SAGE of the developing wheat caryopsis,”, Z. J. Yang, Z. S. Peng, S. H. Wei, M. L. Liao, Y. 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The second category included 11 gene sets, most of which belonged to the G2 expression type. LCE proteins are involved in the cornified cell envelope assembly of skins and associated with ROS detoxification [59]. Like Ms2, the IDG033-encoded proteins have plastidic localization signal peptides. Other genes in this category have also been associated with anther and pollen development. A few genes, such as IDG035.2-5A, IDG035.1-4D, IDG035.2-4D, IDG042.1-6A, IDG042.3-6A, IDG042.4-6A, and IDG042.8-6A, were supported by ESTs but were matched to a negligible number of reads in the RNA-seq datasets. The expression profiles of these genes were different, although all expressed in stamen. In this type of inflorescence, the peduncle never ends in a flower, hut it continues to grow indefinitely and bears flowers laterally in acropetal succession i.e., the younger flowers develop towards growing end while the older flowers grow at the base. Physics. Root, node, internode, flag leaf, glume, lemma, palea, lodicule, stamen, pistil, and rachis tissues of the common wheat landrace “Wangshuibai,” grown in a field during the normal growing season, were collected at the heading stage, and developing kernels were collected at the 9th day postanthesis for RNA extraction. Both IDG004 and IDG025 code for anther-specific RTS-like proteins, required for male fertility and affecting tapetal development [56]. 1966. IDG020 codes for a late cornified envelope- (LCE-) like proline-rich protein. The wheat α-tubulin gene was used in calibrating cDNA templates. However, information about its link to the plastidial fatty alcohol pathway is still lacking. The second group, G2, consisted of 20 gene sets and 48 genes. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are single-pass sequence reads by sequencing cDNA libraries and usually have >400-base read length. Group G3 was the largest group, including 80 genes from 29 gene sets, characterized by a predominant expression in stamen and a negligible level of expression in the vegetative tissues. The IDG009-encoded phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEAMT) is the committing enzyme for choline biosynthesis. demonstrated that GA regulates stamen development through JA signaling [75]. In wheat, flowering under natural photoperiods is regulated by stepwise increases in the expression of FT1, which responds dynamically to extending daylengths to promote early inflorescence development. 2018, Article ID 6897032, 13 pages, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/6897032, 1The Applied Plant Genomics Laboratory of Crop Genomics and Bioinformatics Centre, Nanjing Agricultural University, Jiangsu 210095, China. A. and significantly different at and 0.01, respectively.