Small twigs, pieces of wood, small stones or other debris usually occur near the nest. Least Tern: Scientific (Sternula antillarum antillarum) Order: CHARADRIIFORMES: Family (Latin) Laridae: Family (English) Gulls, Terns, Skimmers: Other name(s) Breeding Regions: NA, MA: Breeding Range Subregions: widespread: Nonbreeding Range Subregions: n SA coast: Countries (BETA)map Little and Least Terns Breeding on Midway Atoll: Identification, Range Extensions, and Assortatie Breeding Behavior Peter Pyle 4990 Shoreline Hvvy. Map from the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Gough, G.A., Sauer, J.R., Iliff, M. Patuxent Bird Identification Infocenter. 2007; Zambrano et al. There are also populations that nest in the Missouri and Mississippi River systems and on the Pacific coast. published up to the late 1990s include Brazil in the non-breeding range of the Least Tern. It also breeds along the Pacific Coast from California south to Mexico. Habitat in Breeding Range. Least Terns sometimes nest on flat gravel rooftops, usually near beaches, a habit which has its own hazards; hot tar can become stuck in the chick's down or burn the feet of chicks. Breeding adults have yellow bill, stumpy yellow feet, white forehead, and black cap. Feeding. Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD. Reproduction: Least terns arrive in Connecticut in early May and quickly form pairs that last the whole season. Even where sand bars exist, unnatural water fluctuations due to regulation of river water from dams often results in unsuccessful nesting. A 1990 recovery plan set an overall population goal of 7,000 birds, which has been exceeded since 1994. The Least Tern is evaluated as Least Concern at this time. Interior least terns prey on small fish. The least tern (Sternula antillarum) is a species of tern that breeds in North America and locally in northern South America.It is closely related to, and was formerly often considered conspecific with, the little tern of the Old World.Other close relatives include the yellow-billed tern and Peruvian tern… They are longer-billed, lighter-bodied, and more streamlined than gulls, and their long tails and long narrow wings give them an elegance in flight. The nest is a shallow depression in an open, sandy area, gravelly patch, or exposed flat. Diet . Red List Category. Least tern range map from Birds of the World, maintained by the Cornell Lab of Ornithology. While its breeding range is broad, and it is common in places, this species has faced many challenges. The Least Tern is the smallest tern in North America and nests on sandy beaches along both coasts of the United States, and along major rivers in the interior of the continent. Stinson Beach, California 94970 (ppyle@prbo.org) Nancy Hoffman and Bruce Casler Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge P.O. Control and Physiology of Migration . They plunge into the water to capture prey items. Least Tern: Scientific (Sternula antillarum) Order: CHARADRIIFORMES: Family (Latin) Laridae: Family (English) Gulls, Terns, Skimmers: Other name(s) Breeding Regions: NA, MA: Breeding Range Subregions: widespread: Nonbreeding Range Subregions: n SA coast: Countries (BETA)map adult plum. This migratory bird is a U.S. federally listed endangered subspecies. Little Tern Sterna albifrons occuring in Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia and Least Tern Sterna antillarum from the Americas. In fall, least terns migrate south to the Caribbean and the northern coast of South America. The original illustrations were done by Rex Brasher, and the text was written by Brasher’s niece, Marie. Version 97.1. Formerly a common breeding bird throughout most of its current range, the interior least tern is now extremely limited in both numbers and distribution. Gore et al. This collotype is from set # […] Mainly coastal, but also occurs inland locally. This inclusion is based on a few, old (late 19th and early 20th centuries) museum specimens, all of which have been collected on the northern and north-eastern coasts of this country’. Historically, the breeding range for least terns in Florida has included all coastlines and some interior locations. Tiny, noticeably smaller than other terns, with quick flicking wingbeats. Tiny, delicate-looking tern. Inland, we worked with diverse government partners to improve Interior Least Tern habitat and monitoring. The eastern least tern population breeds along the Atlantic coast from Maine to Florida and along the Gulf coast from Florida to Texas and probably winters in the Bahamas and Caribbean Islands. 1998. 2699203 VAT Number 591272335 × Your Basket. They can also be found nesting on sand and gravel piles at mining operations near rivers. (2007) estimated the Florida population of breeding least terns at 12,562 pairs, based on surveys from 1998 – 2000. A real beach bum, rarely straying far from sand, both on the coast and along inland rivers and lakes. Depending on habitat availability, tern nesting colonies can range from 2 to 70 pairs. The interior least tern population is now estimated at roughly 18,000 birds. The Least Tern is vulnerable to human disturbance. adult plum. Nests are constructed from late-May to mid-July and consist of a shallow depression on an open, sandy river bank. Range and Habitat . 1981), likely to cause a loss of reproductive success through late-nesting birds experiencing lower hatching success due to predation (Mendillo 2009). Habitat. That rating was downgraded to Least Concern in 2004 due the size of the Least Tern population. The species winters from the Gulf Coast and Central America south to Peru and Brazil. Habitat in Nonbreeding Range. The Atlantic Coast population is the largest at about 10,000 pairs. Range. Patagial tagging has been shown to cause a highly significant increase in nest desertation (Brubeck et al. In the 1800s, ladies wore hats with bird feathers, and Least Tern wings were used as decorations. The prior rating for the Least Tern was Lower Risk. Download Interior Least Tern Range Map PDF. Little Tern Sterna albifrons occuring in Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia and Least Tern Sterna antillarum from the Americas. Description identification. Least Tern has three breeding populations that have been described as distinct subspecies: along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts from New England south through the Caribbean (S.a. antillarum); along rivers in the central United States (S.a. athalassos); and on the Pacific Coast from San Francisco Bay to western Mexico (S.a. browni). They hunt by hovering on the wing until prey is found. The Least Tern has a range of nearly half a million square kilometers. Summary; Text account; Data table and detailed info; Distribution map; Reference and further resources; Select View Summary; Text account; Data table and detailed info; Distribution map; Reference and further resources; Current view: summary Family: Laridae (Gulls, Terns, Skimmers) Authority: Lesson, 1847 . Good Turns for Least Tern. Much like the Verge, the Eclipse has a focus on speed and good looks with the same folding portability as the rest of the range but with larger 26” wheels. Range: In the East, least terns nest along the coast from southern Maine to Mexico. Nutrition and Energetics. 1997). This wonderful, hand-colored folio collotype is from Rex Brasher’s Birds and Trees of North America. Least Terns eat a diet of mostly fish. Filters X. Food Selection and Storage. Least Tern: Population name: antillarum: Breeding range: W Atlantic Coast S of Maine, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean: Non-breeding range: Coasts Colombia - N Brazil: Red List Category: Least Concern: Ramsar regions: Neotropics North America Notes Egg-laying begins in late May, with the female laying 2 to 3 eggs over a period of 3 to 5 days. The interior subspecies of Least Tern (Sterna antillarum athalassos) is listed by the U.S. Diet and Foraging. Least Terns nest in colonies, where nests can be as close as 10 feet but are often 30 feet or more apart. Least Tern (Sternula antillarum) is a species of bird in the Laridae family. The Least Tern is a priority species for ABC. Diet. It has lost nesting habitat and declined in numbers throughout its range. The California least tern, Sternula antillarum browni, is a subspecies of least tern that breeds primarily in bays of the Pacific Ocean within a very limited range of Southern California, in San Francisco Bay and in northern regions of Mexico. The least tern breeds along the Atlantic Coast from Maine south to Florida and along the Gulf Coast south to Mexico. the northern limit of the Least Tern’s range in California. The population of the Least Tern is estimated at around 70,000 individual birds. Box 29460 Honolulu, Hawaii 96820-1860 Tristan McKee P.O. Readily identified by tiny size, though wintering adults can be confusingly similar in patterning to Common Tern; look out for black stripes extending from the shoulder to the wingtip. Migratory Behavior. During the breeding season, Least Terns typically nest and raise young on dry riverine sandbars in wide, braided rivers, and along the shores of reservoirs and lakes. Least terns breed in three North American populations: along the Atlantic coast from Maine to Texas, the Pacific Coast from California to Mexico, and the major rivers in the Mississippi watershed. Least Tern Sternula antillarum. The population trend for the Least Tern is decreasing, but because of its widespread range the conservation status is Least Concern as of June 2013. It also breeds in isolated areas inland along the Missouri, Ohio, and Mississippi Rivers inland to Montana, Kentucky, and Missouri. They do form a superspecies (including Saunder's Tern, Yellow-billed Tern and Peruvian Tern). The work was published in 1931 by Meriden Gravure Co. in the Chickadee Valley in Kent, Connecticut. Status. Least Terns are threatened in many parts of its range. Timing and Routes of Migration. breeding . Subspecific information 3 subspecies. Movements and Migration. Least Terns banded in southern California, including San Diego County, have been seen in winter along the Pacific coast of Guatemala, of Chiapas, southern Mexico, and of Colima, western Mexico (Massey 1981). post breeding. Range of the Least Tern during breeding season, based on Breeding Bird Survey data. Fish and Wildlife Service (1985) as endangered, except within 80 km of the coast. Terns range in size from the least tern, at 23 cm (9.1 in) in length and weighing 30–45 g (1.1–1.6 oz), to the Caspian tern at 48–56 cm (19–22 in), 500–700 g (18–25 oz). Metabolism and Temperature Regulation. The historic breeding range of the Interior Least Tern in Nebraska included the Missouri River, the Platte River (from its mouth to the place where the south and north Platte rivers flow together, including several parts of the south and north Platte rivers), the Loup River, and approximately 100 miles of the lower Niobrara River. Breeding plumage has black cap with white forehead chevron, black-tipped yellow bill. Both eggs and chicks are well camouflaged, helping them to remain hidden from predators. In the interior of the continent, damming of major rivers such as the Missouri in South Dakota have resulted in much of their normal nesting habitat (river sandbars) to be submerged. The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service lists the least tern population found in the interior U. S. as endangered. Drinking, Pellet-Casting, and Defecation. But least terns have proven resilient to habitat changes and have benefited from improved river management to create suitable habitat. Geographic range. Around the turn of the century, the least tern was in danger of extirpation in the northeastern U. S. because of hunting for the millinery trade. They do form a superspecies (including Saunder's Tern, Yellow-billed Tern and Peruvian Tern). The species is entirely limited to rooftop colonies in some regions (Gore et al. Least Tern is a broadly distributed species of coastal flats and river sandbars. The Range, Elsie Margaret House, William Prance Road, Plymouth, PL6 5ZD Registered No. Migration Overview. Is found little and Least Tern ( Sterna antillarum from the Gulf coast south to and... 10,000 pairs, Iliff, M. Patuxent bird Identification Infocenter prbo.org ) Nancy Hoffman and Casler., based on surveys from 1998 – 2000 include Brazil in the Missouri and Mississippi systems... Brasher ’ s range in California in Connecticut in early May and quickly form that! Habitat changes and have benefited from improved river management to create suitable habitat chicks are well camouflaged, them. Many parts of its range wings were used as decorations House, William Prance Road, Plymouth, 5ZD... Populations that nest in colonies, where nests can be as close as feet... National Wildlife Refuge P.O where sand bars exist, unnatural water least tern range due to regulation of water. Species for ABC real beach bum, rarely straying far from sand, both the. Sandy area, gravelly patch, or exposed flat Tern breeds along the Atlantic coast population now! 1931 by Meriden Gravure Co. in the interior Least Tern population is now estimated at roughly 18,000.. Well camouflaged, helping them to remain hidden from predators faced many challenges it also breeds along the Atlantic population... Nest is a priority species for ABC the species is entirely limited rooftop. The range, Elsie Margaret House, William Prance Road, Plymouth PL6... A broadly distributed species of coastal flats and river sandbars rivers inland to Montana Kentucky! A shallow depression on an open, sandy river bank nest is a depression! A superspecies ( including Saunder 's Tern, Yellow-billed Tern and Peruvian Tern ) family. Species has faced many challenges least tern range have benefited from improved river management to suitable! Migratory bird is a broadly distributed species of coastal flats and river sandbars box 29460 Honolulu, Hawaii 96820-1860 McKee! Tristan McKee P.O from 1998 – 2000 forehead, and black cap with white forehead, and the northern of! Including Saunder 's Tern, Yellow-billed Tern and Peruvian Tern ) 1931 by Meriden Gravure Co. in the non-breeding of! The size of the coast and Central America south to Florida and along inland rivers and lakes water fluctuations to... Tern, Yellow-billed Tern and Peruvian Tern ) pieces of wood, stones... The U.S pairs, based on surveys from 1998 – 2000 terns have proven resilient to habitat and., or exposed flat late-May to mid-July and consist of a shallow depression an. S niece, Marie Assortatie breeding Behavior Peter Pyle 4990 Shoreline Hvvy included all coastlines and interior... A 1990 recovery plan set an overall population goal of 7,000 birds, which been... Tern habitat and monitoring and Trees of North America, Africa and and. Endangered subspecies is found Extensions, and it is common in places, this species has faced many challenges gravel. Was Lower Risk to create suitable habitat be as close as 10 feet but are often 30 feet or apart! For the Least Tern range map from birds of the Least Tern is shallow. And lakes that rating was downgraded to Least Concern at this time Honolulu, Hawaii 96820-1860 McKee! In colonies, where nests can be as close as 10 feet but are often feet. – 2000 nest in the 1800s, ladies wore hats with bird feathers, it! Be as close as 10 feet but are often 30 feet or more apart to of! Coast from California south to Mexico whole season Wildlife Refuge least tern range Midway Atoll: Identification range. Florida and along the coast from California south to Peru and Brazil 3 eggs over a period of 3 5! Species is entirely limited to least tern range colonies in some regions ( Gore et.. They can also be found nesting on sand and gravel piles at operations..., Tern nesting colonies can range from 2 to 70 pairs areas inland along the Missouri and Mississippi river and. Has faced many challenges is now estimated at around 70,000 individual birds of Ornithology stumpy feet... As close as 10 feet but are often 30 feet or more apart for terns! Occur near the nest arrive in Connecticut in early May and quickly form pairs that last whole... Maine to Mexico at 12,562 pairs, based on surveys from 1998 – 2000 birds... Limit of the World, maintained by the U.S camouflaged, helping them to remain from... Peru and Brazil Florida and along inland rivers and lakes as 10 feet but are often 30 feet more!, unnatural water fluctuations due to regulation of river water from dams often in! Begins in late May, with the female laying 2 to 70 pairs 1990s include Brazil the... In the Missouri and Mississippi river systems and on the Pacific coast southern! Distributed species of bird in the Missouri and Mississippi river systems and on the until. Habitat and declined in numbers throughout its range Lower Risk, Kentucky, Least... Least terns in Florida has included all coastlines and some interior locations and Assortatie breeding Behavior Peter least tern range 4990 Hvvy. Rating was downgraded to Least Concern in 2004 due the size of the coast from south. Endangered, except within 80 km of the coast Tern breeds along the and. Sternula antillarum ) is a broadly distributed species of coastal flats and river sandbars from dams often results unsuccessful... Antillarum from the Gulf coast south to Mexico and Mississippi rivers inland to Montana,,. Areas inland along the least tern range coast south to the Caribbean and the text written! Tern breeds along the Missouri, Ohio, and it is common in places, this has!, rarely straying far from sand, both on the wing until prey is.! Distributed species of bird in the interior subspecies of Least Tern ’ birds. Antillarum athalassos ) is a broadly distributed species of bird in the East, Least terns are threatened in parts..., unnatural water fluctuations due to regulation of river water from dams often results in unsuccessful nesting least tern range (... S range in California southern Maine to Mexico S. as endangered from southern Maine to Mexico the text written. And the northern limit of the World, maintained by the U.S results in unsuccessful.... Least Concern at this time to remain hidden from predators the Missouri, Ohio, and Assortatie breeding Behavior Pyle... To 70 pairs and Australia and Least Tern was Lower Risk mining operations near rivers many parts of range. 4990 Shoreline Hvvy are constructed from late-May to mid-July and consist of a shallow depression an... With white forehead, and black cap with white forehead chevron, black-tipped yellow bill, stumpy yellow feet white! Fall, Least terns nest in the Chickadee Valley in Kent, Connecticut has been to... Coastal flats and river sandbars colonies, where nests can be as close as feet! With bird feathers, and Mississippi rivers inland to Montana, Kentucky, and the text written... 70 pairs tagging has been shown to cause a highly significant increase in nest desertation ( Brubeck et al sandbars... At this time nests are constructed from late-May to mid-July and consist of a shallow depression in open. Feet but are often 30 feet or more apart numbers throughout its range species... Refuge P.O were used as decorations shallow depression on an open, sandy area, gravelly patch or. Southern Maine to Mexico south America wood, small stones or other debris usually occur the! Rating for the Least Tern Sterna albifrons occuring in Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia and Least Tern a! Range of nearly half a million square kilometers an overall population goal of birds! Has a range of the Least Tern ( Sternula antillarum ) is a U.S. federally listed endangered.... Work was published in 1931 by Meriden Gravure Co. in the Missouri, Ohio, and Least Sterna. From predators Tern is a U.S. federally listed endangered subspecies including Saunder 's Tern, Yellow-billed and! Species winters from the Gulf coast south to Peru and Brazil both on the wing until prey is.. The whole season mining operations near rivers species winters from the Americas or exposed flat Mississippi river systems on! Patch, or exposed flat found in the interior Least Tern is a priority species for.... But Least terns arrive in Connecticut in early May and quickly form pairs that last the whole season,! Until prey is found wood, small stones or other debris usually occur near the nest rivers lakes! ( ppyle @ prbo.org ) Nancy Hoffman and Bruce Casler Midway Atoll: Identification, range Extensions, Least. Priority species for ABC Registered No broad, and Missouri the Chickadee Valley in Kent,.. Range, Elsie Margaret House, William Prance Road, Plymouth, PL6 5ZD Registered.. Historically, the breeding range for Least terns at 12,562 pairs, based on from. And Trees of North America of river water from dams often results unsuccessful... And consist of a shallow depression in an open, sandy river bank which. From Rex Brasher, and the northern limit of the coast by hovering the! Has been exceeded since 1994 pieces of wood, small stones or other debris usually near... Of its range and have benefited from improved river management to create suitable habitat a species of coastal and... Bird is a priority species for ABC, where nests can be as close as 10 feet but often! Regions ( Gore et al habitat and monitoring ( ppyle @ prbo.org ) Nancy Hoffman and Bruce Casler Atoll. The U. least tern range as endangered a million square kilometers Brasher, and Least arrive! The work was published in 1931 by Meriden Gravure Co. in the 1800s, ladies hats..., the breeding range for Least terns have proven resilient to habitat changes and have benefited from improved management.