Allergies/Toxicity: Although severe reactions are quite uncommon, oak has been reported as a sensitizer. Identifying and Using Hundreds of Woods Worldwide, POSTER: Worldwide Woods: Ranked by Hardness. Named after its inventor, Gabriel Janka, the Janka Hardness Test is a way to determine how durable a species of wood is. Hand sawing is fruitless, carbide blades are a must. I had a question – At what measure of hardness is a wood classified as a hardwood or softwood? Hardwood & Bamboo Janka Ratings. Janka Hardness: 1,350 lb f (5,990 N) Modulus of Rupture: 14,830 lb f /in 2 (102.3 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,762,000 lb f /in 2 (12.15 GPa) Crushing Strength: 7,370 lb f /in 2 (50.8 MPa) Shrinkage:Radial: 5.6%, Tangential: 10.5%, Volumetric: 16.3%, T/R Ratio: 1.9. Red Oak Janka Hardness Score. Hardness is defined as resistance to indentation using a modified Janka hardness test, measured by the load required to embed a 11.28-mm (0.444-in.) Janka Hardness Rating Scale For Hardwood FloorsHardness Scale For Flooring White Oak Is Harder Than Standard RedWood Flooring Hardness Comparison Durability And Other QualitiesWood Flooring Hardness … Red Oak with 1290 on scale. I would not choose this wood for a weapon, unless there was nothing else available. The force used is then measured in kN (kilonewton) as the Janka … Based on the description I found at the address below, I suspect it’s not as hard as others. Any wood with a Janka rating of 900 or up is a good hardwood for flooring. Identifying and Using Hundreds of Woods Worldwide, POSTER: Worldwide Woods: Ranked by Hardness. On the Janka hardness scale -- a scale that ranks wood for hardness, hickory is the hardest of all domestic hardwoods, ranking at 1,820. It typically cost 20% more than red or white oak. Apitong, Keruing 1,520 lbs 4. Historically, it has been used in shipbuilding, and was even used in the construction of the USS Constitution, which was fittingly named “Old Ironsides”—an incontrovertible testament to the wood’s toughness. If you’ve ever tried ammonia fuming of white oak, live oak does the same thing but much darker and faster. Sharp tools are a must, so keep your grinding wheel close by. The Janka Scale can even reveal subtle hardness differences between woods that appear to be quite similar. This number is incredibly useful in directly determining how well a wood will withstand dents, dings, and wear—as well as indirectly predicting the difficulty in nailing, screwing, sanding, or sawing a given wood species. I have worked it several times, mostly lathe work. Are Rosewoods (and Bubinga) really banned by CITES? ball to one-half its diameter. The Janka hardness values have been indicated below for your reference. So, Red Oak at 1290 on the scale indicates the average force required for Red Oak is 1290 Lb. Conversely, Red Oak tends to be slightly redder, but is by no means a reliable method of determining the type of Oak. That’s a great explanation Ejmeier. But in general, most hardwoods are harder than softwoods, and certainly the very hardest woods in the world are all hardwoods. At almost 270 million years old, I’m surprised it’s not listed anywhere. Color/Appearance: Has a light to medium brown color, though there can be a fair amount of variation in color. Oak & Broad offers two of the most popular choices in terms of Janka hardness. What is a good Janka hardness for hardwood floor? The Janka hardness test measures the force required to embed a .444 inch steel ball to half its diameter in wood. The problem with live oak is that it is, by nature, a sprawling tree that doesn’t play well with others, as in a forest stand. Even with a professional saw like that it was hard to cut. Common Red Oak with an average Janka rating of 1290 is the industry benchmark lor comparing the relative hardness of different wood species * Bamboo tested on Morning Star Bamboo brand which uses a more mature bamboo (4 year minimum). White Oak 1,360 lbs 5. Red Oak, with a test rating of 1290, is considered relatively soft. It’s easier to cut, plane and has a deeper look to it qtr. Each wood has been meticulously documented and photographed, listed with its Janka hardness value (in lbf) and geographic and global hardness rankings. The actual number listed in the wood profile is the amount of pounds-force (lbf) or newtons (N) required to imbed a .444″ (11.28 mm) diameter steel ball into the wood to half the ball’s diameter. The diameter was chosen to produce a circle with an area of 100 square millimeters. The harder the species, the more expensive it can be. The harder woods like Red Oak will be a higher number on the scale and the softer woods will be a lower number on the scale. You can find stronger hardwood with a hardness of 2400 lbs or more. Tree Size: 40-60 ft (12-18 m) tall, 4-6 ft (1.2-1.8 m) trunk diameter, Average Dried Weight: 63 lbs/ft3 (1,000 kg/m3), Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .80, 1.00, Modulus of Rupture: 18,220 lbf/in2 (125.6 MPa), Elastic Modulus: 1,960,000 lbf/in2 (13.52 GPa), Crushing Strength: 8,810 lbf/in2 (60.8 MPa), Shrinkage: Radial: 6.6%, Tangential: 9.5%, Volumetric: 14.7%, T/R Ratio: 1.4. But going back to your original question in terms of a hardness threshold, it depends on the application, but for me, I’d look for at least a Janka hardness of say around 800 or 900 lbf for most objects that will get handled, etc., and closer to 1500 lbf for things like worktops or flooring. Is there a specific threshold? A hardwood with a high Janka Hardness rating may be preferable for areas where there is high traffic or if you have small children or indoor pets. Le test de dureté Janka détermine la résistance du bois à l'enfoncement ; il mesure la force nécessaire pour enfoncer dans le bois, jusqu'à la moitié de son diamètre, une bille d'acier de 11,284 mm (0,444 pouce).. Cette méthode, qui laisse une empreinte dans le bois testé, a été mise au point par un dendrologue autrichien, Gabriel Janka (1864-1932), au tout début du XX e siècle. See the articles Wood Allergies and Toxicity and Wood Dust Safety for more information. Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices or on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. White oak's numerical hardness value is 1360. Technically Balsa is a hardwood, though it’s the softest wood around, and some softwoods can be somewhat hard. Roughly, I would try to stay around the 1200 lbf mark. Color/Appearance: Has a light to medium brown color, though there can be a fair amount of variation in color. Consult with us today! So, this would measure the ability of a wood be bulletproof? This test measures the force required to embed an 11.28mm (0.444 in) steel ball to half its depth into wood. Having to hard of a surface on your bench can cause marks in your work. We are install solid wood/sand poly floor in a new home with a full basement, what vapor barrier should we use. If you are patient the grain produces some beautiful results, but it does tend to check. The Janka Dry Hardness rating measures the hardness of the wood. Color/Appearance: Heartwood is a light to medium brown, commonly with an olive cast. Hardwood and softwood labels are somewhat misleading, and have nothing actually to do with the hardness of the wood, but rather to botany. HARDWOOD JANKA RATINGS *Red Oak with a Janka rating of 1290 is the industry benchmark for comparing the relative hardness of different wood species. Though, due to its incredible density, (especially for an oak), Live Oak is harder to work with than other species of the Quercus genus. This number is given for wood that has been dried to a 12% moisture content, unless otherwise noted. Are Rosewoods (and Bubinga) really banned by CITES? Definitely a worthy wood to be catalogued. The poster, Worldwide Woods, Ranked by Hardness, should be required reading for anyone enrolled in the school of wood nerdery. The Janka hardness test provies a relative scale where the higher the number indicates the harder the wood. Below are the details of the different wood species and their Janka Hardness Test Ratings. Also, in some instances (where noted), I’ve estimated the Janka hardness value using equations that use the wood’s basic specific gravity, as found in the paper, “Estimating Janka Hardness from Specific Gravity for Tropical and Temperate Species.”. This is especially true since the quality of the high-end 7-layer finish of our flooring protects the wood from scuffs, scrapes and scratches. It is one of the best measures of the ability of a wood species to withstand denting and wear. For reference, white oak has a Janka hardness of 1,350 lbf (5,990 N), while the super-hard lignum vitae has a hardness of an astounding 4,390 lbf (19,510 N). Red Oak Hardwood – 1290; Red Oak is the most famous of all the domestic woods; the perfect hardwood choice for flooring. Where would you draw the line for the hardness? It comes with reasonable to slightly weighty graining with practical color variations. But as you said, there are a lot of other properties that are more important than hardness, one of which is shock resistance. Compare that to a 690 for a Southern Yellow Pine, 950 for Red Maple, 1010 for Black Walnut, and 1100 or Siberian Larch (a commonly imported hardwood) and you will see why a Red Oak floor can withstand decades of use. Douglas fir provided a good stable surface to work on. Douglas fir works out great for wood working benches. though it is diffuse porous and readily separable from white oaks on the basis of anatomy. I sent you an email, but here is the short version. Not as flexible, perhaps, but a little more dent resistant. Rot Resistance: Live Oak has been rated as having very good resistance to decay, and has been used frequently in ship and boatbuilding. Do you think live oak would hold up for out door structure timber framing in the south west high desert climate? The Janka score for a Northern Red Oak floor will be 1,220-foot lbs. Well, the two standbys are White Ash and Hard Maple, so I would try to stay in that ballpark. The Janka scale is used to determine the relative hardness of particular domestic or exotic wood species. It has a Janka hardness of 660 lb which technically makes it a softwood but a lot of people vouch for its durability. Copyright © 2008-2020 Eric Meier | All Rights Reserved, “Estimating Janka Hardness from Specific Gravity for Tropical and Temperate Species.”, https://www.canadianwoodworking.com/woods-know-ginkgo. White oak flooring comes in at 1,360, whereas black walnut flooring comes in at 1,010; malleable but durable, both options work perfectly for residential use. Short runs could be glued together, but supporting its own weight out of water could be an issue. Species Characteristics: Like Red Oak, White Oak has a resistance to shock and a significant stiffness and density. Purpleheart 1,860 lbs 2. Below are listed the relative hardness for numerous wood species used in flooring. Thank you for clarifying. The Janka test measures the amount of force required to embed a 0.444" steel ball into the wood to half of its diameter. While the test is not something you can perform on your own, it’s simple to comprehend. Endgrain: Diffuse-porous; exclusively solitary; large to very large pores arranged radially, few; tyloses abundant; parenchyma vasicentric, diffuse-in-aggregates; very wide aggregate rays and narrow rays, spacing normal. The test measures the force required to push a steel ball with a diameter of 11.28 millimeters (0.444 inches) into the wood to a depth of half the ball’s diameter. It is indeed very hard and I was only able to shave off a very small portion at a time on my planer. The Janka Test was developed as a variation of the Brinell hardness test. It grows close to the ocean and prefers coastal grass plains. I suppose it depends on what you’re comparing it to. The most durable flooring woods will be hardwoods such as oak, walnut, ebony, maple, ash, and pecan. White oak also has a higher Janka hardness! Brazilian Apitong, Angelim Pedra 1,720 lbs 3. Most find it appealing. T: 518-260-8210 Workability: Easy to glue, and takes stain and finishes very well. In comes the janka test. The scale used in the table is pounds-force. The Janka hardness test is the industry standard for determining the ability of a particular timber species to withstand denting and wear. Odor: Has a tell-tale smell that is common to most oaks. The higher the Janka rating / number the greater the hardness. Hardness JANKA Colour/Tone ; Wormy Chestnut : 8.1 : Pale Blondes to Greyish Brown may have a hint of Pink : Turpentine : 12.0 : often mid brown with pink tones : Tasmanian Oak : 7 : Light in colour, varying from straw to reddish brown with intermediate shades of cream to pink. On the lower end of the spectrum, basswood has a hardness of around 410 lbf (1,820 N). The actual number listed in the wood profile is the amount of pounds-force (lb f) or newtons (N) required to imbed a .444″ (11.28 mm) diameter steel ball into the wood to half the ball’s diameter. Long planks of any size are almost unheard of. Technically, the test involves pushing an 11.18mm diameter steel ball into wood fibre until it reaches half of the diameter of the ball. Janka Rating: White oak has a slightly higher Janka rating than its very near relative, Red Oak. Pricing/Availability: Seldom available commercially, Live Oak may only be available from local sawmills within its native range. Copyright © 2008-2020 Eric Meier | All Rights Reserved, Live Oak shares many of the same traits as. Its not the hardest species, but holds up well when pots and pans are dropped. The Janka scale is used to determine the relative hardness of particular domestic or exotic wood species. 4397 New York Highway 9, Warrensburg, New York 12885, United States. Janka Hardness. Expect prices to be higher than most other domestic species. Woods with a higher rating are … This is done by testing the floor’s resistance by measuring how much pressure is needed to embed an 11.28 millimetre ballbearing halfway into the boards surface. The Janka Hardness scale is used to determine a hardwood’s resistance to dents, dings and scratches. While there are plenty of hard domestic wood species, some of the hardest woods come from exotic trees in countries like Peru, Brazil, and Africa. Hard maple ranks 1,450, while red oak ranks 1,290. A good starting point is an oak product. Janka Hardness Rating: With a Janka Hardness rating of 1290 out of 4000, the Red Oak wood species falls within the medium range for hardwood flooring options. Western Red Cedar 350 lbs Sawn that is. The hardness of the hardwood used to manufacture your floor is important to a certain extent, although for standard residential use, this factor is not necessarily crucial in making your choice. As Keith said, even the best chainsaws will get a workout when cutting logs into workable lumber. It’s a fine wood to work with when your building indoor furniture or milling trim. Consider this: the venerable Red Oak (Quercus rubra) sits at only #33 in North America and #278 worldwide for hardness! Because American oak is seasonal, the grain is wild and open. Values presented are the average of radial and tangential penetrations. The higher the Janka Rating, the harder the timber is. As a soft, light wood, Tasmanian oak isn’t suited to outdoor decking. Relative hardness of wood flooring species. Red oak, which has a Janka rating of 1290, is the most popular U.S. hardwood species and is an industry benchmark for correlating the relative hardness of different hardwood species. mark Reply to asadefa 3 years ago Well, red oak has some qualities of better to work with. Therefore, it has a very short trunk and lots of limbs. These ratings were done using the Janka Hardness Test. Physical Properties Dry Density: range 650 kg/m³ Janka Hardness: 5.5 kN These properties are only a guide, as timber is a natural product there will be variations within any species. The Janka hardness test is the hardness level given to each species. Fluorescence: A Secret Weapon in Wood Identification, Bow Woods (from a mathematical perspective), Brazilian Rosewood, East Indian, and Other Rosewoods, Genuine Lignum Vitae and Argentine Lignum Vitae, BOOK: WOOD! (1) 1. Interested in hardwood flooring for your home? https://www.canadianwoodworking.com/woods-know-ginkgo. FYI: I receive a commission on sales generated through links to Amazon, eBay, etc. Common Uses: Cabinetry, furniture, interior trim, flooring, boatbuilding, barrels, and veneer. hardness rating. Fluorescence: A Secret Weapon in Wood Identification, Bow Woods (from a mathematical perspective), Brazilian Rosewood, East Indian, and Other Rosewoods, Genuine Lignum Vitae and Argentine Lignum Vitae, BOOK: WOOD! I was wondering your thoughts on a butcher block counter. Live oak grows with a sort of ropey/twisted grain. There is no tree that has stood through glacier shifts, continental shifts, ice ages, dinosaurs, and even mankind. Douglas Fir 660 lbs 7. I took a sharpened hatchet and tried to stick it in the end of the tree and it bounced out of my hand without making a dent. The trunk was over 3 feet wide and it was hard as rock. Oak, Walnut and Janka Hardness. This, in turn, allows manufacturers to decide which types of wood are suitable for hardwood flooring. I tried several times with the same results.… Read more ». 1. (Nobody likes dings and dents all over their counters) Also, when will this become available again? White pine (if strong enough for your application) treated with Timbor would probably be sufficient for several years, and can be retreated as needed if left… Read more », (This is a monthly update, and your email will be kept private.). (Who could imagine a wood species that is over three times harder than white oak?) The ropey texture also means tear out so I highly recommend drum or wide belt sanding to final thickness.… Read more », I have not worked with as far as wood working goes but I did cut up the secondary trunk of a century live oak ( None to be over one hundred years old) with a 60cc 25in bar stihl chainsaw. It is a question of whether you want the marks to show up on your new piece of work or on the work bench. Red Oak 1,290 lbs 6. What size pieces are needed to run a Janka test and where can these tests be carried out? The Janka hardness test (from the Austrian-born emigrant Gabriel Janka, 1864–1932) … May have irregular grain depending on growing conditions of the tree. And it is the most common and popular one. Janka Hardness: 1,120 lb f (4,980 N) Modulus of Rupture: 14,100 lb f /in 2 (97.1 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,544,000 lb f /in 2 (10.60 GPa) Crushing Strength: 6,720 lb f /in 2 (46.3 MPa) Shrinkage:Radial: 4.7%, Tangential: 8.4%, Volumetric: 13.0%, T/R Ratio: 1.8. (This is a monthly update, and your email will be kept private.). Angiosperms are referred to as hardwoods, while gymnosperms (aka conifers) are softwoods. Poplar ranks 540 on the low end of the scale. Oak vs maple flooring pros and cons superior hardwood flooring relative hardness chart of hardwood wood flooring species harder janka hardness test wikipedia janka scale wood hardness evergreen. So just wanted to check with you too..thoughts? JANKA SCALE. Grain/Texture: Grain is straight, with a coarse, uneven texture. Woods with a higher rating are harder than woods with a lower rating. No, just the LBF needed to Imbed the .444 inch steel ball 11.28 millimeters into the wood. A Janka rating is a rating largely used by the timber flooring industry to compare the hardness of a floor. Janka Specie Name; 350: … I had a query with regards to Douglas Fir wood. The hardness of a timber is measured by the Janka hardness test. Douglas fir is probably above average in hardness for a softwood, but I’d say that it was by no means as tough as something like oak or hard maple. FYI: I receive a commission on sales generated through links to Amazon, eBay, etc. I have amassed over 500 wood species on a single poster, arranged into eight major geographic regions, with each wood sorted and ranked according to its Janka hardness. Usually most common reactions simply include eye and skin irritation, as well as asthma-like symptoms. While the complete Janka hardness listings will reveal that there are some fairly hard softwoods and some relatively soft hardwoods, in the species most commonly used in flooring, the identifiers hold true: hardwoods are harder than softwoods. Green River Lumber. Janka Hardness Scale – 3200; Oak (American) – Most varieties of American oak are just not up to high standards – they are roughly equivalent to ash. The Janka Scale can even reveal subtle hardness differences between woods that appear to be quite similar. Janka Hardness: 2,680 lb f (12,920 N) Modulus of Rupture: 18,220 lb f /in 2 (125.6 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 1,960,000 lb f /in 2 (13.52 GPa) Crushing Strength: 8,810 lb f /in 2 (60.8 MPa) Shrinkage: Radial: 6.6%, Tangential: 9.5%, Volumetric: 14.7%, T/R Ratio: 1.4. Hickory is the hardest wood species that is domestically grown and produced in America. Comments: Live Oak shares many of the same traits as White Oak (Quercus alba), though it is diffuse porous and readily separable from white oaks on the basis of anatomy.