Vincci Porto. Winds NW at 10 to 20 mph. There are normally 10 hours of bright sunshine each day in Porto in August - that's 69% of daylight hours . Low Temp: 43 °F. North of the country especially the mountainous region is characterized by high humidity with average annual precipitation of 1 to 2 m and more. The heat is more intense in the interior of Portugal, especially in the Alentejo and Algarve regions. The hottest day of the year is July 28, with an average high of 76°F and low of 60°F. Last 2 weeks of weather. On average, the warmest month is August. Average temperatures for March at cities throughout Portugal are listed below in degrees Celsius and Fahrenheit. The brighter period of the year lasts for 3.1 months, from May 16 to August 20, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter above 6.6 kWh. Rainfall around a quarter of an inch. All other weather data, including cloud cover, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and solar flux, come from NASA's MERRA-2 Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis . High 58F. The wind is most often from the east for 1.2 months, from January 7 to February 14 and for 1.8 months, from November 4 to December 30, with a peak percentage of 35% on December 16. Through October and November, temperatures stay pleasant, with daytime temperatures typically in the low twenties and high teens, although moving into later autumn the area tends to experience a lot more rainfall. Considerable cloudiness with occasional rain showers. Porto is one of the coldest regions in Portugal with an average daily high temperature of only 20 degrees centigrade. Be prepared with the most accurate 10-day forecast for Porto, Porto, Portugal with highs, lows, chance of precipitation from The Weather Channel and Weather.com The average of mean hourly wind speeds (dark gray line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. Scroll right to see more Conditions Comfort Precipitation Sun; The time of year with cooler water lasts for 3.5 months, from December 30 to April 13, with an average temperature below 58°F. The average temperature is steady at 19°C (66°F), the same as August. Our cloud cover score is 10 for fully clear skies, falling linearly to 9 for mostly clear skies, and to 1 for fully overcast skies. In 2020, the shortest day is December 21, with 9 hours, 12 minutes of daylight; the longest day is June 20, with 15 hours, 9 minutes of daylight. The predominant average hourly wind direction in Porto varies throughout the year. Portugal is the country with largest in Europe number of sunny days. Ngaruawahia, New Zealand (12,137 miles away) is the far-away foreign place with temperatures most similar to Porto (view comparison). Winds SW at 5 to 10 mph. Famed Telescope's Dramatic Collapse Caught on Cam, This Meteorologist-Made Umbrella is a Great Gift, Save 50% on a Sam's Club Membership Today, Just in Time, This Space Heater is More Than Half Off, This Next-Gen Odor Eliminator Is 37% Off Today, What Communities are Doing to Reduce Wildlife Collisions on Roadways, Check Our Interactive Map and Informational Hub, Democratic Republic of the Congo | Français, State of Vatican City (Holy See) | Italiano. Rain. For each station, the records are corrected for the elevation difference between that station and Porto according to the International Standard Atmosphere , and by the relative change present in the MERRA-2 satellite-era reanalysis between the two locations. The black line is the percentage chance that a given day is within the growing season. All Year Climate & Weather Averages in Porto. Winds N at 5 to 10 mph. Winds WNW at 15 to 25 mph. Light rain early...then remaining cloudy with showers in the afternoon. Chance of rain 60%. Winds W at 10 to 15 mph. Over the course of the year, the temperature typically varies from 46°F to 77°F and is rarely below 39°F or above 88°F . High 57F. Overcast with rain showers at times. Winds SW at 10 to 15 mph. 63.5 °F Jul – Sep 26.3 °C. Our beach/pool temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 65°F, rising linearly to 9 for 75°F, to 10 for 82°F, falling linearly to 9 for 90°F, and to 1 for 100°F or hotter. The percentage of time spent in each cloud cover band, categorized by the percentage of the sky covered by clouds. Increasing clouds with periods of showers after midnight. 2 Week Extended Forecast in Porto, Portugal. The topography within 2 miles of Porto contains significant variations in elevation, with a maximum elevation change of 571 feet and an average elevation above sea level of 272 feet. Chance of rain 40%. Chance of rain 60%. The drier season lasts 3.9 months, from May 28 to September 23. Climate of Portugal is Mediterranean, with significant influence of the ocean. Low near 50F. Not as cold as most locations in Europe, Porto sports a warm temperate, Mediterranean climate, with daytime temperatures in winter ranging from 50-60F/10-18ºC and nighttime from 40-50F/5-10ºC. Rainfall around a quarter of an inch. The wetter season lasts 8.1 months, from September 23 to May 28, with a greater than 21% chance of a given day being a wet day. We base the humidity comfort level on the dew point, as it determines whether perspiration will evaporate from the skin, thereby cooling the body. Chance of rain 40%. For the purposes of this report, the geographical coordinates of Porto are 41.150 deg latitude, -8.611 deg longitude, and 318 ft elevation. Cloudy with showers. Showers early becoming a steady light rain later in the day. Periods of rain. Winds SW at 5 to 10 mph. You can view the weather statistics for the whole month, but also by clicking on the tabs for the beginning, the middle and the end of the month. In Lisbon, the average in summer is higher, and reaches 23.5 °C (74.5 °F) in August, with highs around 28 °C (82 °F). Winter and summer in Porto. Average Weather in July in Porto Portugal. Precipitation: 2.08". Low 47F. Cloudy with showers. Chance of rain 80%. We draw particular cautious attention to our reliance on the MERRA-2 model-based reconstructions for a number of important data series. Low 51F. The average rainfall (solid line) accumulated over the course of a sliding 31-day period centered on the day in question, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. 79.3 °F 19.5 °C. Winds SW at 10 to 15 mph. Check average temperature, sunshine & rainfall plus more in Porto, Portugal The windier part of the year lasts for 6.4 months, from October 21 to May 1, with average wind speeds of more than 6.9 miles per hour. Low 47F. Some light rain is likely. MERRA-2 Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis. Use escape to clear. The percentage of days in which various types of precipitation are observed, excluding trace quantities: rain alone, snow alone, and mixed (both rain and snow fell in the same day). The figure below presents a compact representation of key lunar data for 2020. Chance of rain 50%. June is particularly pleasant in northern Portugal. We further caution that our travel scores are only as good as the data that underpin them, that weather conditions at any given location and time are unpredictable and variable, and that the definition of the scores reflects a particular set of preferences that may not agree with those of any particular reader. The ocean near Porto is cold to swim in: the water temperature reaches 18 °C (64 °F) in July and September, and 19 °C (66 °F) in August. The average weather of Porto – the maximum daytime temperature and the number of wet days Porto has hot summers where the daytime temperature routinely exceeds 30°C. Our tourism temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 50°F, rising linearly to 9 for 65°F, to 10 for 75°F, falling linearly to 9 for 80°F, and to 1 for 90°F or hotter. High 52F. Low 44F. The maximum of summerly 18 degrees of water temperature gives little cause for joy. This country would not be the best destination for a beach holiday. Chance of rain 80%. Chance of rain 70%. On July 20, the clearest day of the year, the sky is clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 85% of the time, and overcast or mostly cloudy 15% of the time. Average Weather in Porto Portugal In Porto, the summers are comfortable, dry, and mostly clear and the winters are cold, wet, and partly cloudy. To characterize how pleasant the weather is in Porto throughout the year, we compute two travel scores. Porto in the Winter. All data relating to the Sun's position (e.g., sunrise and sunset) are computed using astronomical formulas from the book, Astronomical Algorithms 2nd Edition , by Jean Meeus. In winter you will find long periods of rain. Low 52F. Average temperatures for June at cities throughout Portugal are listed below in degrees Celsius and Fahrenheit. The country can be divided into five climatic areas—meaning in Portugal you’re … Weather conditions with updates on temperature, humidity, wind speed, snow, pressure, etc. On average, the coolest month is December. Chance of rain 80%. Chance of rain 60%. © Copyright TWC Product and Technology LLC 2014, 2020. Making up for this, though, are mild daytime temperatures that can climb as high as 20 degrees C (68 degrees F). The perceived humidity level in Porto, as measured by the percentage of time in which the humidity comfort level is muggy, oppressive, or miserable, does not vary significantly over the course of the year, staying within 4% of 4% throughout. Winds SE at 5 to 10 mph. In winter, temperatures never drop below 40ºF (5ºC) and maximum temperatures usually vary between 55ºF and 61ºF (13ºC - 16ºC).Although winters are generally mild, strong winds occasionally blow due to the Atlantic depressions. The calmest day of the year is September 12, with an average hourly wind speed of 5.8 miles per hour. The wind blows frequently: in the cold half-year, it is caused by Atlantic depressions, and can be strong, while in summer, a cool breeze from the sea blows in the afternoon. High 58F. Rain showers in the morning becoming a steady light rain in the afternoon. December is the wettest month of the year, receiving an impressive 180 millimetres of rainfall. At the same time, temperatures rise slowly and it is already possible to feel a comfortable feeling in the middle of the day - especially during the second period: the weather in Porto throughout March is already pleasant. There is no ‘real’ winter in Faro, but rather a long and pleasant spring and around 11 hours of sunshine each day. 01/01/2014 : 13° à 15°, Pluie modérée.02/01/2014 : 12° à 16°, Pluie modérée. In this report, we use a base of 50°F and a cap of 86°F. We assume no responsibility for any decisions made on the basis of the content presented on this site. Winds ESE at 5 to 10 mph. In Porto, a city located in the northern part of the coast of Portugal, the climate is temperate oceanic, with mild, rainy winters and pleasantly warm, sunny summers. High 59F. You can hope to have about … Click on each chart for more information. Chance of rain 70%. The wettest month is December with an average of 180mm of rain. Get the forecast for today, tonight & tomorrow's weather for Porto, Porto, Portugal. The horizontal axis is the day of the year, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the color is the average temperature for that hour and day. These average ocean temperatures for Porto are calculated from several years of archived data. The number of hours during which the Sun is visible (black line). The day of the year with the warmest water is August 28, with an average temperature of 64°F. Rainfall around a quarter of an inch. Chance of rain 70%. The darker period of the year lasts for 3.7 months, from October 24 to February 15, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter below 2.9 kWh. It enjoys a warm temperate climate with wet winters, dry summers, and the highest temperatures averaging above 71 F. As compact as Portugal is, about 349 miles north to south and only 135 miles east to west, there are distinct differences when it comes to climate within its borders. When it rains in Portugal, it pours. Low around 50F. Definitions of the growing season vary throughout the world, but for the purposes of this report, we define it as the longest continuous period of non-freezing temperatures (≥ 32°F) in the year (the calendar year in the Northern Hemisphere, or from July 1 until June 30 in the Southern Hemisphere). The earliest sunrise is at 6:01 AM on June 14, and the latest sunrise is 1 hour, 59 minutes later at 7:59 AM on January 5. Get the monthly weather forecast for Porto, Porto, Portugal, including daily high/low, historical averages, to help you plan ahead. Cloudy with periods of rain. Daytime maximum temperatures average around 25°C (77°F), whilst at night 15°C (59°F) is normal. In the southern regions there are about 3000 sunny hours per year. The thin dotted lines are the corresponding average perceived temperatures. The solar day over the course of the year 2020. Low near 50F. Winds SSE at 5 to 10 mph. Mean Temp: 59 °F. As this is the average air temperature measured in the shade, it will feel much hotter while sightseeing under the intense summer sun. The rainy period of the year lasts for 11 months, from August 4 to July 5, with a sliding 31-day rainfall of at least 0.5 inches. 60.0 °F Southern Coast Month Air Sea Jan – […] The coldest day of the year is January 24, with an average low of 43°F and high of 56°F. High 56F. This reanalysis combines a variety of wide-area measurements in a state-of-the-art global meteorological model to reconstruct the hourly history of weather throughout the world on a 50-kilometer grid. The figure below shows you a compact characterization of the entire year of hourly average temperatures. Chance of rain 70%. Winds NNW at 10 to 20 mph. Average High Average Low Record High Record Low Average Precipitation. Porto is located near a large body of water (e.g., ocean, sea, or large lake). Porto, Portugal: Annual Weather Averages July is the hottest month in Porto with an average temperature of 19.5°C (67°F) and the coldest is January at 10°C (50°F) with the most daily sunshine hours at 10 in July. Winds SW at 10 to 15 mph. Names, locations, and time zones of places and some airports come from the GeoNames Geographical Database . The length of the day in Porto varies significantly over the course of the year. Low 46F. 53.0 °F 16.1 °C. Cloudy with occasional light rain. Map showing location of Porto (41.149610, -8.610990) Locations nearby Cloudy with periods of rain. Use up and down arrows to change selection. This section reports on the wide-area average surface temperature of that water. The best time of year to visit Porto in Portugal Porto has a warm sea climate. During summer temperatures can sometimes even rise above 40 degrees Celsius (104° Fahrenheit), but because of the low humidity it feels pleasant and not to hot. This report illustrates the typical weather in Porto, based on a statistical analysis of historical hourly weather reports and model reconstructions from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2016. Temperature In Porto, Portugal, the average high-temperature is essentially the same as in March - a still comfortable 18.1°C (64.6°F). 67.1 °F Oct – Dec 17.2 °C. The average hourly wind speed in Porto experiences mild seasonal variation over the course of the year. Check the wheather history day by day over the past 6 years for anuary, February, March, April, May, May, July, July, August, September, October, November, December. Chance of rain 60%. Winds NNW at 5 to 10 mph. Chance of rain 70%. Porto - Weather forecast from Theweather.com. Porto's metropolitan area has an estimated 1.7 million people (2019) in an area of 2,395 km 2 (925 sq mi),, making it the second-largest urban area in Portugal. Western Coast Month Air Sea Jan – Mar 17.1 °C, 62.8 °F 14,9 °C. The calmer time of year lasts for 5.6 months, from May 1 to October 21. Cloudy. The daily average high (red line) and low (blue line) temperature, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. What is the weather like in Porto (PORTUGAL)? The best time of year to visit Porto in Portugal. The stations contributing to this reconstruction are: Francisco de Sá Carneiro Airport (73%, 12 kilometers, northwest); Ovar Mil. Average monthly temperatures in Porto (degrees centigrade and fahrenheit) Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec °C: 13.3: 14.2: 16: 17.5: 19.6: 22.7: 24.8: 25: 24: 20.7: 16.3: 13.7 °F: 55.9: 57.6: 60.8: 63.5: 67.3: 72.8: 76.7: 77.1: 75.1: 69.3: 61.4: 56.6 Chance of rain 40%. In Porto, the daily average temperatures in July is 20 °C (68 °F), with highs around 24/25 °C (75/77 °F). Plus, winds coming from the Atlantic Ocean bring cool breeze to this city. Winds SSW at 5 to 10 mph. Among wet days, we distinguish between those that experience rain alone, snow alone, or a mixture of the two. Winds E at 5 to 10 mph. Maps are © Esri, with data from National Geographic, Esri, DeLorme, NAVTEQ, UNEP-WCMC, USGS, NASA, ESA, METI, NRCAN, GEBCO, NOAA, and iPC. The time of year with warmer water lasts for 4.2 months, from June 15 to October 22, with an average temperature above 62°F. In Porto, the average percentage of the sky covered by clouds experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year. See more current weather × Porto Extended Forecast with high and low temperatures °F. Low near 45F. This is the average temperature as measured in the shade, so will feel much hotter while out in the sun. Chance of rain 80%. Winds SE at 5 to 10 mph. The time in which the moon is above the horizon (light blue area), with new moons (dark gray lines) and full moons (blue lines) indicated. Thus, the mean temperature average in april in Porto is 61°F. Daily high temperatures increase by 2°F, from 74°F to 76°F, rarely falling below 67°F or exceeding 87°F.The highest daily average high temperature is 76°F on July 28.. Daily low temperatures are around 59°F, rarely falling below 53°F or exceeding 65°F.The highest daily average low temperature is 60°F on July 30. December is a month for peaceful holidays and the wonderful times of Christmas, so you can certainly make sure Santa drops you a hotel reservation to Vincci Porto, a 4-star wonder of close proximity to the Cristal Palace Gardens.Its rooms go for £149 per night during the winter holiday period, but it is well worth it! Winds NW at 10 to 20 mph. support@__remove_this_part__weatherspark.com. Winds ESE at 5 to 10 mph. Winds SW at 5 to 10 mph. Chance of rain 80%. Showers early becoming a steady light rain later in the day. Weather data is prone to errors, outages, and other defects. Probably the most inconvenient part about winter in Portugal is the rain. Overcast with rain showers at times. The area within 2 miles of Porto is covered by artificial surfaces (90%), within 10 miles by artificial surfaces (31%) and water (28%), and within 50 miles by water (41%) and trees (27%). The climate in Porto during July can be summarized as warm, humid and dry. Cloudy with periods of rain. The average temperature in the city of Porto (north of Portugal) is 20ºC / 68ºF, rising to 25ºC / 77ºF during the day. However, although this might sound unbearable, because of its low humidity, even Porto’s hot weather manages to be pleasant. Porto Weather averages for holidays in 2021/2022. According to Köppen and Geiger, this climate is classified as Csb. Growing degree days are a measure of yearly heat accumulation used to predict plant and animal development, and defined as the integral of warmth above a base temperature, discarding any excess above a maximum temperature. The brightest day of the year is July 5, with an average of 7.9 kWh. You can jump to a separate table for each part of the country: Southern, Lisbon Region, Central and Northern Portugal. The windiest day of the year is December 26, with an average hourly wind speed of 7.9 miles per hour. A wet day is one with at least 0.04 inches of liquid or liquid-equivalent precipitation. The beach/pool score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 75°F and 90°F. Rainfall around a quarter of an inch. The average water temperature experiences some seasonal variation over the course of the year. Chance of rain 60%. Winds WSW at 10 to 15 mph. Winters may be rainy, more so than in Lisbon, but summers are pleasant, with many sunny days and sea winds that moderate temperatures. Based on the tourism score, the best time of year to visit Porto for warm-weather activities is from mid June to early September. Based on weather reports collected during 1985–2015. July is in the summer in Porto and is typically the warmest month of the year. The day of the year with the coolest water is February 18, with an average temperature of 56°F. Chance of rain 40%. The wind is most often from the north for 8.0 months, from February 14 to October 14, with a peak percentage of 53% on July 23. The average daily shortwave solar energy reaching the ground per square meter (orange line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. High 57F. The growing season in Porto typically lasts for 11 months (334 days), from around February 1 to around December 31, rarely starting after March 3, or ending before December 4. Winds SW at 10 to 15 mph. The percentage of hours in which the mean wind direction is from each of the four cardinal wind directions, excluding hours in which the mean wind speed is less than. Within 10 miles contains significant variations in elevation (1,247 feet). Chance of rain 50%. Overcast with showers at times. Winds WNW at 10 to 15 mph. 71.2 °F 17.5 °C. Rainfall near a quarter of an inch. Winds NNW at 10 to 15 mph. Daytime temperatures usually reach 25°C in Porto in August with no heat and humidity, falling to 15°C at night. The first option will be automatically selected. Winds S at 5 to 10 mph. High 58F. This section discusses the total daily incident shortwave solar energy reaching the surface of the ground over a wide area, taking full account of seasonal variations in the length of the day, the elevation of the Sun above the horizon, and absorption by clouds and other atmospheric constituents. Winds SSW at 5 to 10 mph. Expect occasional rain to continue for the next several hours. Rainfall near a quarter of an inch. Recently searched locations will be displayed if there is no search query. Showing: All Year January February March April May June July August September October November December. The smallest chance of a wet day is 5% on July 21. The wind experienced at any given location is highly dependent on local topography and other factors, and instantaneous wind speed and direction vary more widely than hourly averages. The average low-temperature, is 9.1°C (48.4°F). Weather conditions throughout March are gradually improving, the rains are slowly withdrawing and leaving more room for the beautiful sun. 44°. Porto enjoys a temperate climate, with mild temperatures throughout the year. (23%, 26 kilometers, south); and Vila Real Airport (4.0%, 76 kilometers, east). The average daily incident shortwave solar energy experiences extreme seasonal variation over the course of the year. The vertical gray bars (new Moons) and blue bars (full Moons) indicate key Moon phases. Due to the warmer temperatures the best time for traveling is in August. Chance of rain 60%. Average monthly temperatures in Porto (degrees centigrade and fahrenheit) Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec °C: 13.3: 14.2: 16: 17.5: 19.6: 22.7: 24.8: 25 The chance of a wet day peaks at 38% on October 28. That’s right, we’ve said it: Porto is the most authentic city to visit! Also the wind coming from the Atlantic ocean brings a cool breeze to the city. Elevation data comes from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) , published by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Winds SSE at 5 to 10 mph. The information on this site is provided as is, without any assurances as to its accuracy or suitability for any purpose. During the summer months, temperatures can rise to 104°F. The tourism score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 65°F and 80°F. Based on growing degree days alone, the first spring blooms in Porto should appear around February 8, only rarely appearing before January 25 or after February 26. Here are the average temperatures. Hi/Low, RealFeel®, precip, radar, & everything you need to be ready for the day, commute, and weekend! Showers continuing overnight. The shaded overlays indicate night and civil twilight. 58.8 °F Apr – Jun 21.8°C. From bottom to top, the black lines are the previous solar midnight, sunrise, solar noon, sunset, and the next solar midnight. (Weather station: Porto / Pedras Rubras, Portugal). The cool season lasts for 3.5 months, from November 21 to March 5, with an average daily high temperature below 60°F. The average growing degree days accumulated over the course of the year, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. High 51F. The average hourly temperature, color coded into bands. There are 3 weather stations near enough to contribute to our estimation of the temperature and dew point in Porto. The thin dotted line is the corresponding average liquid-equivalent snowfall. Chance of rain 50%. The wind is most often from the south for 3.0 weeks, from October 14 to November 4 and for 1.1 weeks, from December 30 to January 7, with a peak percentage of 30% on October 28. Hotels for Porto in December. Here are the average sea temperatures. In Lisbon and along the southern coast, the average temperature is around 24ºC / 75ºF but can reach 28ºC during the day. The earliest sunset is at 5:05 PM on December 8, and the latest sunset is 4 hours, 6 minutes later at 9:11 PM on June 27. Considerable cloudiness with occasional rain showers. In Porto, the summers are comfortable, dry, and mostly clear and the winters are cold, wet, and partly cloudy. The months June, July, August, September and October have a nice average temperature. The rainless period of the year lasts for 4.3 weeks, from July 5 to August 4. The average annual temperature in Porto … Shortwave radiation includes visible light and ultraviolet radiation. Type at least three characters to start auto complete. Cloudy. Low 48F. The most rain falls during the 31 days centered around December 27, with an average total accumulation of 5.2 inches. Take control of your data. Weather in Porto in march 2021. Over the course of the year, the temperature typically varies from 43°F to 76°F and is rarely below 34°F or above 87°F . for Porto, Porto High near 60F. Chance of rain 60%. The shaded overlays indicate night and civil twilight. The darkest day of the year is December 24, with an average of 1.7 kWh. The wettest period is between November and March, but during the rest of the year, rain is less common.. To show variation within the months and not just the monthly totals, we show the rainfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. The transitions to and from daylight saving time are indicated by the 'DST' labels. Land Use data comes from the Global Land Cover SHARE database , published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Overcast with rain showers at times. Some light rain is likely. Time zones for airports and weather stations are provided by AskGeo.com . Also the wind coming from the Atlantic ocean brings a cool breeze to the city. The average annual maximum temperature is: 66.2° Fahrenheit (19.0° Celsius) Chance of rain 60%. The warm season lasts for 3.1 months, from June 18 to September 23, with an average daily high temperature above 72°F. Occasional light rain. Porto experiences extreme seasonal variation in monthly rainfall. Humidity: 79%. While having the tremendous advantages of temporal and spatial completeness, these reconstructions: (1) are based on computer models that may have model-based errors, (2) are coarsely sampled on a 50 km grid and are therefore unable to reconstruct the local variations of many microclimates, and (3) have particular difficulty with the weather in some coastal areas, especially small islands.